Know the Facts! Aqua is about the truth, and nothing but the truth.
We’re all about total transparency. Everything we say in our website and informational materials is substantiated by scientific research, reports and published studies. Switching from chemical dry cleaning is advocated at the government level, to the point that Perc (the most widely used chemical) will be illegal in LA starting in 2018 and in all of California in 2020. There are similar studies about Perc replacements that are based on petroleum or silicon (sand), and we have references for those, as well.

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i AB998 Non-Toxic Dry Cleaning Incentive Program (AB998)

Legal questions:

  1. From AB998, there is some basis for using the words “non-toxic” and possibly “toxic”( see below of actual AB 998 text) Clear that ARB classified wet cleaning as non-toxic and non-smog forming. Green Earth petitioned to be included as a AB998 approved solvent but was rejected based on OEHHA assessment of Green Earth’s toxicity. Does ARB’s rejection of Green Earth’s petition to be classified as a non-toxic necessarily mean that we can claim Green Earth can be classified as “toxic”?)

(From AB998 test: “To be eligible for a grant pursuant to this section, applicants shall completely replace their percholorethylene-based dry cleaning system with a system that the state board, in consultation with the Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, the State Water Resources Control Board, the Department of Toxic Substances Control, and any other entity the state board determines to be appropriate, has determined to be nontoxic and nonsmog-forming. The state board shall determine the eligibility of grant recipients”)

ii Human Health and Environment Matrix comparing perc, petroleum, GE, PWC, and CO2. (Note: Use SF matrix, Guidebook matrix, ARB, OEHHA, and EPA Cleaner Technologies Substitute Assessment: Professional Fabricare Processes 1998 (Ch 10), docs from NESHAP challenge.

iii Human Health and Environment Matrix

iv Need citation on long dry cycle in dry cleaning to reduce ppm leading to excessing drying. EPA 1997 Conference?

v Human Health and Environment Matrix

vi Human Health and Environment Matrix

vii Note: Perc, petroleum, and siloxane-based Green Earth are all synthetic chemical solvents.

viii Perchloroethylene is listed as a Toxic Air Contaminant by the State of California and the Hazardous Air Pollutant by Federal Clean Air At.

Toxicity of Green Earth:

  1. ARB September 13, 2007 memo rejecting classification of D5 as non-toxic. REVIEW OF TOXICITY INFORMATION ON D5. https://www.arb.ca.gov/toxics/dryclean/oehhad5review.pdf. “Thus, more widespread exposure to D5, a dopamine agonist, has potential public health impacts. Further, D5 appears to have significant bioaccumulative potential, has been measured in several aquatic species at ppm concentrations, and appears to have a long half-life in humans. Thus, D5 persistence in the environment and in animal and human tissues is a concern. OEHHA cannot conclude at this time that D5 is non-toxic.”
  1. Alternative Solvents: Health and Environmental Impacts, 2015. ARB summary of professional apparent care solvents — https://www.arb.ca.gov/toxics/dryclean/notice2015_alt_solvents.pdf
  2. OEHHA documentation – 2009 https://sfenvironment.org/sites/default/files/fliers/files/sfe_th_oehha_green_earth_hazards.pdf
  3. Siloxanes Environment, Health, and Safety Council. Agreement with ARB decision not to classify Green Earth as Non-Toxic professional apparent cleaning process https://sehsc.americanchemistry.com/SEHSC-Stand-by-Stat-OEHHA-D5-Review-02-2008.pdf
  4. Green Earth Regulatory overview 2012 (Failed to state ARB decision not to classify Green Earth as Non-Toxic professional apparel cleaning method. Failed to disclosed OEHHA 2009 report on D5 https://issuu.com/greenearthcleaning/docs/regulatory_overview_-_4_1_12

ix Kutz, Josef. (1996) “Textile Care Research Programs in Germany.” USEPA (EPA 744-R-96-002) September 1996 Proceedings: Apparel Care and the Environment: Altnerative Technologies and Labelling. Kutz showed evidence of textile damage caused by long dry cycles required to reduce dry clean solvent emissions required by dry clean pollution control regulations.

x Human Health and Environment Matrix

xi Guidebook, p.56

xii Human Health and Environment Matrix

xiii Guidebook, p.13. Based on customer response from dry cleaners switching to professional wet cleaning

xiv Classic Cleaners. Will Dry Cleaning Turn Your Whites “Dingy”? http://classiccleaners.net/2013/01/16/will-dry-cleaning-turn-your-whites-dingy/ (Access: July 26, 2017).

xv Kutz, Josef. (1996) “Textile Care Research Programs in Germany.” (see above)

xvi Classic Cleaners. Will Dry Cleaning Turn Your Whites “Dingy”? http://classiccleaners.net/2013/01/16/will-dry-cleaning-turn-your-whites-dingy/ (Access: July 26, 2017).

xvii Guidebook. Customer response from dry cleaners switching to PWC

xviii Kutz, Josef. (1996) “Textile Care Research Programs in Germany.” (see above)

xix ARB on PWC and CO2 as only non-toxic and non-smog forming cleaning methods; Human Health and Environment Matrix

xx Guidebook, p.13

xxi California Air Resources Board.(September 4,2015). “Alternative Solvents: Health and Enviornmental Impacts” https://www.arb.ca.gov/toxics/dryclean/notice2015_alt_solvents.pdf

xxii Classic Cleaners. Will Dry Cleaning Turn Your Whites “Dingy”?

xxiii Los Angeles Times. “Dry-clean solvent to be phased out.” January 26, 2007.

xxiv California Air Resources Board.(September 4,2015). “Alternative Solvents: Health and Enviornmental Impacts” https://www.arb.ca.gov/toxics/dryclean/notice2015_alt_solvents.pdf

xxv Human Health and Environment Matrix. The California Air Resources Board has determined that the human health and environmental hazards associated with petroleum and siloxane-based dry clean solvents are sufficient to preclude them from being classified as “non-toxic and non-smog forming” dry clean solvents. See Alternative Solvents: Health and Environmental Impacts, 2015. ARB summary of professional apparent care solvents — https://www.arb.ca.gov/toxics/dryclean/notice2015_alt_solvents.pdf. For neurotoxicity of petroleum solvents see OEHHA, 2003. Memo from George Alexeeff to Peter Venturini regarding health effects of exposure to alternative dry cleaning solvents, December 2, 2003..

xxvi Human Health and Environment Matrix

xxvii Human Health and Environment Matrix

xxviii Human Health and Environment Matrix

xxix Guidebook

xxx Human Health and Environment Matrix

 Guidebook

xxxi Guidebook

xxxii Guidebook

xxxiii Human Health and Environment Matrix

xxxiv Human Health and Environment Matrix

xxxv Guidebook for all claims in paragraph

xxxvi Guidebook

xxxvii Los Angeles Times. “Dry-clean solvent to be phased out.” January 26, 2007.